Measuring the exact length of the yarn for denier calculation

Cotton and wool both have short fibres and after these have been carded and combed they are spun into yarn by spinners and doublers. The principle of spinning yarn by machinery is the same as that which was carried out at one time by spinning wheels. To understand the process more easily, if one takes a small piece of cotton wool and draws from it a few of the fluffy filaments and while gently drawing these from the main bulk they are twisted between the finger and thumb, a thread is produced.

Cotton yarns for stocking manufacture are used in various forms either

Determining the twist of yarn

mercerised or unmercerised with a soft or hard twist in either according to the result desired. Lisle is a hard yarn of high twist and the yarn is composed of two threads, one twisted to the right and one to the left and then two twisted together. Mercerised cotton is a cotton yarn that has been treated with chemicals whilst stretched. This results in a lustrous surface to the yarn and a lustrous surface to the stockings that are produced from it.

Some stockings are produced from cotton that has been treated neither by the lisle process not mercerising: others are of lisle or mercerised cotton and some of mercerised lisle. There is another treatment given to some cotton stocking yarns called “gassing”. In the manufacture of these the yarn is passed very rapidly through a gas flame and any projecting wisps of fibre

Weighing an exactly measured length of yarn to find the denier weight

are burnt off so that the remaining yarn has a very smooth surface.

Above: Measuring the exact length of the yarn for denier calculation.

Centre: Determining the twist of yarn.

Below: Weighing an exactly measured length of yarn to find the denier weight.