much less impaired, which in turn results in a more elastic fabric. Here it can be stated that in the Hosiery Industry it is an acknowledged fact that any type of knitted fabric made on a machine using spring-beard needles is more elastic and has a better loop formation than a fabric of the same gauge made on a latch-needle machine.

Finally, in Circular Knitting the thread runs continuously in one direction (around) the fabric. In Flat Knitting the thread runs alternately back and forth (across) the fabric.


As Fully-Fashioned hose take longer to make, they must always remain more expensive than the Seamless article made from the same material—silk, rayon, cotton, nylon, etc. The price disparity between the two types is considerable, the summit of the price-scale of the Seamless article being commensurate with the basic price of the Fashioned. Freely expressed, the Fashioned hose may be said to “start where the other leaves off”. (There is one exception here, this being the nylon No-Seam hose.) These Fashioned stockings with the regularly worked stitches, and with the shape worked into the fabric, have the advantage of retaining their shape when worn. This shape is never lost, in spite of prolonged wear and repeated laundering.

Photographs illustrate the methods of narrowing in Seamless and Fully-Fashioned stockings; they also show the difference between the two types of hose.

The wales run lengthwise in each stocking. In the Fully-Fashioned, it will be seen that these wales are gradually eliminated at the fashion marks, so that there art fewer wales at the ankle circumference than there are at the calf, the width of the stocking in the ankle area thereby being reduced.

In the Seamless, there are as many wales in the ankle circumference as there are at the welt and calf, the reduction in ankle width being accomplished by reduced loop size formation.

Fig. 42 illustrates the calf portion of two stockings (identical in size). It should be noted that in the Fully-Fashioned stocking there are more fashion marks.

Insert shows:- Fully-Fashioned—the fashionings have an upright mark Ʌ in contrast to Seamless—the mock fashionings have an inverted mark V.


few Seamless machines in this country using “spring-beard” needles. These are known in the trade as Circular Spring-Needle machines.) In forming the loop on a Seamless Circular Latch-Needle machine (see Figs. 38 and 24 to 29 showing examples of latch and spring needles) it is necessary for the entire needle head to be drawn through the finished loop, during which
Fig. 41.
FIG. 41
“Seamless Hose is inclined to be a misnomer when a seam is added
according to prevailing fashion.” Photograph shows part of seam taken away.

operation, the yarn forming the loop is stretched according to the needle-head size. On the Spring-Beard Needle Fully-Fashioned machine, when the beard of the needle is pressed into the needle-groove, the needle-head becomes very small, as a result of which the yarn-stretch in the forming of the loop is much less, permitting the formation of a much better knitted loop. Also, again due to the lessened yarn-stretch, the elasticity of the yarn is