points. This is termed “Artificial Fashioning”, and by this procedure the stocking has different types of stitches, large, medium, and small, and to further the “fashioned” effect, small marks corresponding to the narrowings of the fashioned article are placed on each side of the leg seam. These, of course, are purely for the sake of appearance, and serve no other purpose whatsoever and contribute nothing to the shape of the stocking; they are simply “tuck” stitches. When the Seamless hose emerges from the machine—even although it has been subjected to this process of Artificial Fashioning—the necessary leg contour is given to it by the Finisher, in shape-moulding (called “Trimming” or “Boarding”.) (See “Eye-Catching Finish” Article also “Pre-boarding”)
It should not be overlooked that Seamless Stockings are an important factor in today’s sales volume over the retail counter.
These stockings are manufactured on “Flat” or “Cotton” machines. This machine is named after its inventor, William Cotton, of Loughborough, Leicestershire. England, who brought out his machine in the year 1864. The “Cotton” machines are sometimes termed “Straight-bar Knitting Machines”, and hose made on these machines emerge (fully-fashioned or “tailored” to shape) as a flat piece of material, and a joining seam is, therefore, required. These machines predetermine the shaping of the leg by decreasing or increasing at the necessary points the number of stitches used—the width of the stitches remains always the same. The decreasing of the stitches is achieved by the so-called “Narrowings”, recognisable by small marks right and left of the stocking seam—this seam sews together the parts of the hose, the stocking—as previously stated—having been made flat.
One important point of difference between the Fully-Fashioned and Seamless machines for the making of stockings is the needle employed. The needle forms the foundation or basis for the stocking fabric.
In the Fully-Fashioned (Straight-Bar) machines, needles known as “spring-beard” needles are used, while nearly all the Seamless (Circular) machines use latch needles. (There are a