of heavier fabric well under the entire ball of the heel, while the upper-heel arrangement working in conjunction with the instep, provides a wrinkle-proof ankle, and smoother fit across the instep by the use of “right-angle” contour wales.

Gusset Toe. This is an actual gusset on each side of the toe section of the stocking, giving a toe which is similar in design to that of a fully-fashioned stocking. This gusset gives depth to ensure better fit, and the gusset portion of the toe can be adjusted according to size, giving added volumetric capacity without strain. This double-extended gusset is formed by right-angle gusset wales (vertical stitches) which give to the toe of the hose ample fabric stretch in both length and width, thereby assuring cool comfort for active feet, even on the hottest days.

Lace Welt. This can be manufactured on a machine with the selected needle control which makes possible the production of Jacquard designs, also words, in the after-welt and welt hem of the stocking.

A “Mock” seam can be put on hosiery by a seaming-machine operation, the seam extending from the welt to the heel, where it ends, not being carried along the sole of the foot. On the latest machines, the seam can be inserted automatically, during the manufacture of the stocking, also “Mock Fashion” marks can be put in at each side of the seam if required. However, the construction of a Seamless Hose without the mock-fashioning and the seam lends itself admirably to the No-Seam nylon style, with the streamlined trend which is very popular in the U.S.A., being made on 400 needle (in 3¾" diameter) machines. In the U.S.A. 10 Denier mono-filament nylon has been successfully knitted and where dimensional hosiery is made on Seamless machines, small and medium sizes are made on 344 needle and 370 needle, 3¼" and 3½" diameter machines respectively, while the 400 needle, 3¾" diameter and 432 needle, 4" diameter machines would be used for the larger sizes.

In a “No-Seam” Hose, fashion marks and the seam at the back of the stocking are omitted.

The “No-Seam” nylon stocking is a tremendous step forward in the art of hosiery manufacture—this really is hosiery history in the making.

The success of this style is due to the pre-boarding of the


(see “Foundation of Industry”). Both wale and course contribute to the stitch quality of the hose, the stitches varying from 42 courses per inch at the welt to 60 courses per inch at the ankle and foot in a nylon stocking made on a 3¾" cylinder machine with 400 needles.

Courses and wales are counted under a one-inch square of pick-glass (obtainable from any optician). This magnifies the stitches, so enabling them to be easily counted, and the result of the count is always written in the following order, course/wale.

Example:- Stocking made from nylon on 340 needle machine having a diameter of 3½".

 c. w.c. w.c. w.c. w. 
Welt 38/24Leg 39/29Ankle 49/49Foot 49/49

Vast strides have been made in the last few years in the building of Seamless Hose Machinery. These machines have special features, each of which contributes to the production of a stocking which at first sight would appear to be fashioned. The following are the points to look for in a hose of this type:-

Inturned Welt. This is made not unlike the welt on a fully-fashioned stocking, providing comfort for the wearer, and obviating that unsightly and bulky ridge.

Elastic Welt. This is made by the knitting of large and small loops in the fabric, these being controlled automatically, and this variation of stitch gives to the knitted courses—and, therefore, to the welt fabric—greater elasticity. This special welt has sufficient stretch to accommodate the larger woman.

Picot Edge. This is put on at the turn of the welt, and is a feature which is very becoming to the hose. (This style is also made on a fully-fashioned frame.) On Seamless machines the picot edge is produced by every other needle remaining at a tuck height for four courses, while the other needles knit clear in the ordinary way.

Cradlesole. This is very effective, and gives the graceful contour of this type of sole-splicing.

Gusset Square Heel. This is the latest style of non-slipping heel—right-angled directional wales (vertical stitches) at the beginning and the end of the heel preventing slipping in any direction. The heel gusset nearest the sole completes the heel pocket, and to this, extra reinforcement is given by the forming