results in an elastic effect, as well as an increasing of the strength.

4. Grenadine is constructed in the same way as organzine, but with much higher twist, approximately 36 turns on the single end, and about 32 turns in the reverse direction on the assembled threads. This extra twisting gives a harder effect, while still retaining the elasticity of organzine.

5. Crêpes. These are high-twisted yarns, but they differ from grenadine in that the final yarn consists of two equally balanced threads, one being twisted in one direction, and the other in the opposite direction. The two threads (each consisting of two or more single ends of raw silk) are then bound together with a slight binding twist of five turns per inch. Crêpe yarns produce a super-dull fabric, and by virtue of the yarn construction, the stockings have more elasticity, and a greater resistance to the common “snag”, with duller appearance and generally longer life to the stockings. These characteristics make crêpe stockings very desirable.

6. Compensene—Compenzine. These have much the same effect as a crêpe twist, but the construction may be described as partly grenadine and partly crêpe. Compenzine is made by highly twisting separately two or more threads of raw silk, then combining these with a thread without twist, finally giving the combined thread a reverse twist. (In the diagram we have three threads. Two separate threads of silk are each twisted 40 turns to the right per inch—the third strand of silk is not twisted at all. The three threads are given 40 turns to the left per inch, so that the separate strands pull against each other, making a tight. smooth, hard thread. The untwisted third strand is the one that crinkles up, held firmly by the other two. to give the characteristic “pebble” of crêpe thread.) Although this is not an actual crêpe (despite its crêpe appearance) it is considered crêpe for hosiery purposes, by some manufacturers, but it is erroneous to refer to its as crêpe, only the “crêpe twist” mentioned under crêpe heading constituting the absolute standard ruling. In each of the styles Grenadine, Crêpe and Compenzine, the constructions and twist may be varied to suit the different requirements of the stocking manufacturer, but stockings sold as Grenadine, Crêpe and Compenzine must have at least the minimum amount of twist indicated in the diagram for these three types.

Fig. 9 Yarn twists
FIG. 10.